Written in a lively style, the work covers so much material that students will have to read it closely to digest all the book has to offer. But the educated layperson will appreciate the concise style of this informative volume. The book concludes with suggested answers to study questions in an appendix , a comprehensive bibliography favoring recent publications , and an index [Zdenek Salzmann, Northern Arizona University. By Gary B. According to Palmer, 'cultural linguistics' is the synthesis that results when the emergent field of cognitive linguistics is tied into Boasian linguistics, ethnosemantics ethnoscience , and the ethnography of speaking The cultural linguistic approach 'centers on linguistic imagery, which is largely defined by culture' This interesting book of eleven chapters is divided into Part 1 , 'Goals and concepts', and Part 2 , 'Interpretations and applications'.
In general, P is sympathetic to the three traditions of linguistic anthropology mentioned above but is critical of some of their aspects. In his opinion, for example , the ethnosemanticists have not endeavored to develop or utilize a theory of imagery, focusing instead on folk taxonomy, and Dell Hymes, the main exponent of the ethnography of speaking, has failed to present an explanatory theory, remaining content with a 'descriptive theory [which] is essentially a linguistic checklist [e.
What is still needed in linguistic anthropology is a better grasp of the native point of view, combining it with the study of speech in its sociocultural context. The object of cultural linguistics is not to describe 'howpeople talk about some objective reality, but. In Part 2, P offers numerous illustrations of what he has discussed earlier in the book. A few brief examples will have to suffice. Modernism unleashed a dialectical process in society based on chaos and new order, despair and hope, decadence and renewal, and destruction and creation. The aforementioned checklist of characteristics of modernism can be applied to ND intellectuals.
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The loss of transcendent value, purpose, or meaning is a concern of many cultural and political movements from ecologists and Traditionalists to the ND. Western culture's progressive loss of a homogeneous value system due to secularizing and modernizing forces affects the ND as it did late 19th century modernists such as Charles Maurras or Georges Sorel. In liberal societies, we constantly ask for individual rights, reason ND thinkers, without demanding corresponding duties of citizens in an activist framework.
Meaning has been lost in liberal societies due to the progressive loss of a homogeneous value system under the weight of secularizing modernity. Although ND thinkers are largely rational and secular or agnostic, they argue for the necessity of societal myths in order to restore the sacred canopy of community meaning destroyed by the materialism and individualism of modern societies.
The myth of internally homogeneous regions and nations attached to the hierarchical, pagan past will be the necessary myth, which restores meaning and pride to Europe's diverse peoples. Finally, transcendent value will be restored to Europe when it adopts a hierarchical, authoritarian, imperial yet anti-imperialist , and federal political framework, which challenges liberalism and Western models of modernity and the USA as the world's only remaining superpower.
ND philosophers insist that liberal societies have no values save the all-encompassing value of the market's profits. What we have gained in the West in economic progress, gadgets, comfort, predictability of life, and the speed of modern life, we have lost in meaning, enchantment, mystery, spiritual awakening, and life purpose. Third, modernism accelerated momentum in the second part of the 19 th century when liberal, capitalist, and Enlightenment myths of progress lost the cultural hegemony they gained during the French Revolution and early Industrial Revolution.
De Benoist 92 penned a work in the 21 st century, which rejected the Rights of Man and the liberal republican heritage of These aforementioned revolutionary right-wing thinkers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries radically questioned the individualist ethos of the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution's propensity to tear asunder communities. As modernity's materialist and de-territorializing impact cemented in European societies, these right-wing revolutionaries ignited their polemical flames against the modern world.
Fourth, modernity became associated by cultural and intellectual elites in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with decline, decadence, and degeneration. The decline of European societies, argue ND thinkers, accelerated with the realization of the individualist values of in Western European liberal societies and reached its peak with the achievement of egalitarian socialist societies in the Soviet Union and states of Central and Eastern Europe.
Fascism and communism attempted to stem the tide of decadence and degeneration of European societies, but were woefully unsuccessful and spawned the horrors of totalitarianism. The post-World War Two welfare consensus in Western Europe was increasingly shattered in the mids, while communism officially died with the fall of the Marxist-Leninist Soviet regime in Contemporary liberal capitalist Europe is again today between a period of decadence and absolute degeneration.
Modernist movements of the 19th and 20th centuries oscillated between dialectical polar opposites such as chaos and new order, despair and hope, decadence and renewal, and destruction and creation. They all sought a way out from the perceived chaos, despair, decadence, crisis, and destruction associated with modernity. The old religious and cultural certainties of the premodern era, as well as the hierarchical and cosmic orders of epochs past, were ripped apart by the alienating, fragmenting, and individualist impulses of modernity.
Visions of hope, renewal, and creation were offered by the modernists who longed for a new overarching structure of meaning and community order in order to compensate for the loss of meaning of the modern world. Fifth, between the s and World War Two modernism was a diffuse cultural force for redemptive social and moral transformation. Cultural movements as diverse as nudism and vegetarianism, as well as artistic, literary, and political movements on the right, left, and beyond also sought to transcend existing modernity using distinctively modernist lenses and techniques.
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Modernism spawned countless artistic, literary, personal, political, and collective projects to establish a healthier and ethical basis for society, as well as new visions for socio-political order. The danger, adds de Benoist following Giorgio Agamben b. Their intellectuals diagnose the roots of Europe's contemporary ills not only with the modern period, but also the egalitarian Judeo-Christian tradition, which produced processes such as the Enlightenment and modernity, as well as its ideological derivatives liberalism, social democracy, socialism, communism, and feminism.
Modernity will not be transcended by returning to the past, but by means of certain premodern values in a decisively postmodern dimension. It is only at the price of such a radical restructuring that anomie and contemporary nihilism will be exorcised. Nonetheless, the ND shares with Enlightenment-driven liberals and leftists positive faith in reason, science and technology, the mastery of man over nature, and modern, secular models of the ideal state. It is true that modernists come from all political stripes and that there are left and right-wing forms of modernism.
Fascists conceive the nation as an organism shaped by historic, cultural, and in some cases, ethnic and hereditary factors, a mythic construct incompatible with liberal, conservative, and communist theories of society. This revolutionary political order will usher in a postliberal, alternative modernity consisting of a synthesis of sometimes incompatible ideals from past, present, and future mazeway resynthesis.
A sacred canopy of meaning would be restored to Europe in contrast to the alienating and individualistic processes associated with many aspects of modernity. Despite the ND's valorisation of cultural ethnopluralism based on a Herderian influence, the ND does not jettison outdated biological notions of cultural belonging. Is this not a disguised form of racism? In order to counter charges of racism, the ND manifesto states:.
The Anthropology of Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion - ppt download
Rather, the struggle against racism is waged by the refusal of both exclusion and assimilation: neither apartheid nor the melting pot; rather, acceptance of the other as Other through a dialogic perspective of mutual enrichment. Wallace says, "This process of deterioration can, if not checked, lead to the death of the society" , For example, the Yir Yoront of Australia have failed to survive as a distinct cultural entity because the symbol of paternal authority, the stone axe, was damaged by the early introduction of steel axes into the culture Sharp Population may fall even to the point of extinction as a result of increasing death rates and decreasing birth rates; the society may be defeated in war, invaded, its population dispersed and its customs suppressed; factional disputes may nibble away areas and segments of the population.
But these dire events are not infrequently forestalled, or at least postponed, by a revitalization movement. Many such movements are religious in character, and such religious revitalization movements must perform at least six major tasks , : 1 Mazeway reformulation: An individual in the culture has a mazeway reformulation: He begins to picture his society in a new and different way. His mazeway--his personal perspective on his culture's worldview--no longer correlates with mainstream interpretations. Whether the movement is religious or secular, the reformulation of the mazeway generally seems to depend on a restructuring of elements and subsystems which have already attained currency in the society and may even be in use, and which are known to the person who is to become the prophet or leader.
The Anthropology of Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion
These moments are often called inspiration or revelation. Every religious revitalization movement, according to Wallace, has been originally considered in one or several hallucinatory visions by a single individual. A supernatural being appears to the prophet-to-be, explains his own and his society's troubles as being entirely or partly a result of the violation of certain rules, and promises individual and social revitalization if the commands are followed and the rituals practiced. These dreams express: 1. A new mazeway Gestalt is presented, with more or less innovation in culture system.
The prophet feels a need to tell others of his experience, and may have definite feelings of missionary or messianic obligation. Generally he shows evidence of a radical inner change in personality soon after the dream experience: a reduction of old and chronic physical criticisms, a more active and purposeful way of life, greater confidence in interpersonal relations, the dropping of deep-seated habits like alcoholism. Hence these visions can be called "personality transformation dreams.
The dreamer starts to preach his revelations to people, in a prophetic or messianic spirit. Thus he becomes a prophet.
The doctrinal and behavioral orders which he preaches carry two fundamental themes: firstly, the person who will convert himself to the innovated system will come under the care and protection of certain supernatural beings: and secondly, both he and his society will benefit significantly from a discovery with some definable new cultural system.
The preaching may take many forms e. The power of the prophet must be transferred to others, or the movement is apt to die with the prophet who gave it birth. This organization will be constituted by three orders of personnel: the prophet; the disciples; and the followers. People may be converted to the new religion or culture system through different ways, such as : some experience an delighted vision in private circumstances; some are convinced by more or less rational arguments, some by considerations of practicality and opportunity.
Like the prophet, many of the converts undergo a revitalizing personality transformation. According to Weber, this sort of leader will have mysterious authority and moral superiority; all Followers will defer to the charismatic leader not because of his status in an existing authority structure but because of a fascinating personal "power," often ascribed to supernatural sources and validated in successful performance. These resistances can be slight and short-lived but more commonly is strong-minded and resourceful, and is held either by a powerful faction within the society or by agents of a dominant foreign society.
That is why it would be essential to use various strategies of adaptation: doctrinal modification; political and diplomatic tactic; and force. These strategies are mutually inclusive, once chosen, and necessarily maintained through the life of the movement. Wallace referred that he has evidence, which proves that these original doctrines are continuously modified by the prophet, who responds to various criticisms and affirmation by adding to, emphasizing, playing down, and eliminating selected elements of the original visions.
Thus the modification actually serves the interest of the groups and makes it more acceptable to special interest groups, may give it a better "fit" to the population's cultural and personality patterns, and may take account of the changes occurring in the general milieu. In instances where organized opposition to the movement develops, a crystallization of counter aggression against unbelievers frequently occurs, and the modified doctrine then emphasizes shifts from cultivation of the ideal to combat against the unbeliever opposition.