Selective mutism research paper

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The irish potato famine in the s is a perfect example of this. To achieve this they propagated the potatoes causing all of them to be clones of each other and therefore genetically identical. The genetically identical potatoes were all affected by the same disease Phytophthora infestans, which was a rot that caused all the non-resistant potatoes to turn to an inedible slime In selective breeding, two members of the same species are paired as breeding partners in order to encourage desirable characteristics in the offspring.

For example, cows that have been observed producing large volumes of milk may be bred to pass that trait on to ensuing generations. This process helps ensure an increase in the milk yield of future cows Selective Mutism Essay. Selective Mutism Essay Length: words 5.


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Debate surrounds the origins and causes of this disorder. Recent literature suggests that selective mutism may be a form of social phobia.


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The present article is a brief review of the literature on the etiology, assessment, comorbid diagnoses, and treatment perspectives from several theoretical orientations, including behavioral, family systems, and psychopharmacological. Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Submit an article Journal homepage.

Position Statement on SM Treatment | Selective Mutism Association

Original Articles. Valerie L.


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  7. The following list illustrates the necessary components that the ideal treatment for SM should address:. Selective Mutism Association Tri-fold Brochure The following list illustrates the necessary components that the ideal treatment for SM should address: Selective Mutism SM should be viewed and treated as an anxiety disorder.

    Children with SM manifest their anxiety by displaying an inability to speak in one or more select social settings. Children and adolescents with SM are likely to have changes in their anxiety level and level of functioning from one setting to another. Punishment or withholding of privileges for not speaking and communicating effectively in social settings is inappropriate. Treatment of SM should focus on reduction of anxiety through multimodal treatment strategies.

    Selective Mutism

    These may include, but are not limited to, cognitive-behavioral therapy, family therapy, play therapy, and school-based and community-based behavioral interventions. Treatment should assist the child in decreasing anxiety and teaching coping skills to use when confronted with anxious situations. A treatment plan should include approaches that gradually desensitize and allow for decreased anxiety in social settings where speaking does not occur, and a progression from nonverbal to verbal communication. Children generally progress through a hierarchy of feared situations from using nonverbal communication such as nodding, pointing or writing to gradual approximations toward speaking such as whispering or initiating communication nonverbally.

    Placing emphasis on speaking alone will put unnecessary pressure on a child and will often increase anxiety, leading to a lack of progress or regression. A focus on speaking also neglects to address other manifestations of anxiety that are likely present and may remain problematic after a child begins speaking. Treatment should address not only selective mutism but individual characteristics of the child including strengths and weaknesses , comorbid problems, and exacerbating factors.

    A diagnosis of SM should be confirmed by assessment by a treating professional. A thorough assessment of Selective Mutism should also rule-out other disorders that may better account for the mutism such as autism-spectrum disorders, communication disorders and psychotic disorders. Education of parents, school staff members and other significant persons is crucial to enable treatment strategies to be appropriately implemented across various social settings.