As a result, the reader will know what to expect from the paragraph, will be able to make sense of the information to follow, and will understand its relevance within the logical flow of ideas. If you do not establish the context, the reader will have greater difficulty understanding your ideas. In short, you increase reader confusion and reduce the level of communication.
Your job, therefore, is to ensure that each paragraph begins by establishing the context. Once you have introduced the idea and its relevance, you provide the content. The content is the information about idea, i. Each sentence within the body supports the main idea, explains it, and helps the reader understand it.
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When the body of the paragraph is complete, the reader should have all the necessary information to understand the idea. A patient may have many needs that a single nurse, or other healthcare provider, cannot address alone. For example, the patient may have diverse medical needs, such as examinations and treatments for a host of medical conditions. The patient may also have cultural needs based on the social norms, values, and perspectives of his or her community. Finally, a patient may have emotional needs resulting from the interaction of fear of death and hope for recovery.
Whereas the context in example B. In this sample, the body of the paragraph listed three broad types of needs.
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Later paragraphs may discuss those needs in greater detail, which would make this entire paragraph the context for the document section. Broader ideas require more information. Discrete ideas need less. The idea, therefore, determines the content—and the length of the body. If every sentence in the body helps the reader understand the idea, the body will be the right length. Your job, therefore, is to provide the information necessary for understanding the idea of the paragraph.
The conclusion is the final sentence or two of the paragraph, and it is the most difficult to write. Similar to the context, the conclusion has two purposes:. Now that the reader has read the content, what do you want the reader to understand? What should the reader think about or do with the information?
What action do you want the reader to perform? In short, what conclusion should the reader reach from the content you have provided? If you have done well with providing the context and content, the reader will be ready to accept your conclusion. The second function of the conclusion is to create the transition to the next paragraph, which is exactly the same process as creating a transition with the context, though in reverse. To address this diversity of needs, a patient also needs a diverse team of caring, competent healthcare providers who work together to ensure the most positive outcome possible.
The final sentence in Example B. It gives the meaning and value of the content to the reader and makes the argument that patients need multiple caregivers. The reader, having just read about the types of patient needs, will be ready to accept this conclusion. Your job, therefore, is to help the reader reach a conclusion and make sense of the content. For every type of genre, but especially for academic and technical writing , the 3 Cs structure not only works but also is necessary if your purpose is to present information clearly, logically, and persuasively.
About the Author. Precise Edit also offers a variety of other services, such as translation, transcription, and website development. Thank you, Mesiaki L. Lukumay, for your comment. First, you need to know the central idea that will organize this paragraph. This is often called a topic sentence. It should be specific enough to cover in a single paragraph, but general enough that you can develop it over several more sentences.
Although the Braille system gained immediate popularity with the blind students at the Institute in Paris, it had to gain acceptance among the sighted before its adoption throughout France. The topic sentence tells the reader what the paragraph is about — but why does this point matter for your overall argument? This support was necessary because sighted teachers and leaders had ultimate control over the propagation of Braille resources.
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Now you can support your point with evidence and examples. Common types of evidence used in academic writing include:. Make sure to properly cite your sources. Now you have to show the reader how this evidence adds to your point. How you do so will depend on what type of evidence you have used. This resistance was symptomatic of the prevalent attitude that the blind population had to adapt to the sighted world rather than develop their own tools and methods.
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How to Write Academic Paragraphs | A Step-by-Step Guide
Finally, wrap up the paragraph by returning to your main point and showing the overall consequences of the evidence you have explored. Not all paragraphs will look exactly like this. Depending on what your paper aims to do, you might:. The introduction and conclusion paragraphs will also look different. The only universal rule is that your paragraphs must be unified , coherent and relevant.
As soon as you address a new idea, argument or issue, you should start a new paragraph. To determine if your paragraph is complete, ask yourself:. Before you start a new paragraph, consider how you will transition between ideas. This was awesome!
Thank you so much Shona! This was great and I hope you know you have profoundly helped me on my journey to be a professor of psych so I may help others in developing countries!
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